a) Cognitive dissonance “refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors. This produces a feeling of discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance etc. Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that we have an inner drive to hold all our attitudes and beliefs in harmony and avoid disharmony or dissonance (Festinger, 1957.)” - Michigan’s Integrated Behavior and Learning Support Initiative (MIBLSI) (Cognitive Dissonance in Relation to White Fragility 2017)
c) Is code switching a means of resolving cognitive dissonance?
d) “This disagreement between what people want to believe about America, and the reality of the true nature of how the nation has mistreated blacks is where the conflict and dissonance occurs.” http://www.milwaukeeindependent.com/featured/afraid-talk-racism-cognitive-dissonance-nationwide/
e) “Seeing a Black Lives Matter poster in front of a home and thinking ‘white lives matter too’. You see a sign that challenges your belief system, and you feel the need to defend yourself to reduce this tension.” - https://www.reallifepsych.com/single-post/2017/08/16/The-Psychology-of-Cognitive-Dissonance-and-Racism
f) Activity that gets participants to see their own cognitive dissonance - can add more questions to make it more related to race - or expand discussion after to have students examine how cognitive dissonance could be present in their views on race - http://breakingprejudice.org/teaching/group-activities/understanding-cognitive-dissonance-activity/